In wine tasting, a wine is considered "clear" when there are no visible particles suspended in the liquid and, especially in the case of white wines, when there is some degree of transparency. A wine with too much suspended matter will appear cloudy and dull, even if its aroma and flavor are unaffected; wines therefore generally undergo some kind of clarification.
Before fermentation, pectin-splitting enzymes and, for white wine, fining agents such as bentonite may be added to the must in order to promote the agglomeration and settling of colloids later. Pectins are structural molecules in the cell walls of fruits which have the important function of 'gumming' plant cells together. The pectin content of grapes increases steadily throughout ripening, reaching levels of about 1 g/l, although it varies by varietal and pre-fermentation handling processes. Large pectin molecules can affect the amount of juice yielded at pressing, ease of filtration and clarification, and extraction of tannins. Grapes contain natural pectolytic enzymes responsible for softening the grape berries during ripening, but these are not active under wine-making conditions (due to pH level, SO2, and alcohol.) Therefore, fungal pectolytic enzymes are often added to white must to break up pectins, decrease the viscosity of the juice, and speed up settling. In red musts, this increases color and tannin extraction.
Observational studies of ecosystems use constancy to describe living systems that can remain unchanged.
Resistance and inertia (persistence)
Resistance and inertia deal with a system's inherent response to some perturbation.
A perturbation is any externally imposed change in conditions, usually happening in a short time period. Resistance is a measure of how little the variable of interest changes in response to external pressures. Inertia (or persistence) implies that the living system is able to resist external fluctuations. In the context of changing ecosystems in post-glacial North America, E.C. Pielou remarked at the outset of her overview,
GABORONE, April 20 (Xinhua) -- Nigerian multinational commercial bank AccessBank has agreed to buy a majority stake of ... Bannalotlhe also assured clients safety of accounts, the stability of banking operations, and that customer service will remain top priorities.
China's central bank has reiterated that it will prioritize stability in its monetary policy and avoid making sudden shifts in 2021. Based on bank quotes calculated by adding a ... The quoting banks submit their figures before 9 a.m.
China's central bank has reiterated that it will prioritize stability in its monetary policy and avoid making sudden shifts in 2021 ... The quoting banks submit their figures before 9 am on the 20th day of every month.
The UAECentralBank has extended key parts of ... “This comes as part of support for the recovery phase, in line with the Emirates Central Bank’s mandate to ensure Financial and monetary stability in the Emirates,” he explained.
The central bank's dollar purchase at 5 per cent of the GDP exceeding the 2 per cent threshold was cited as the reason ... "These are, in my view, very legitimate market based operations of a central bank. It is a mandate of the central bank to provide stability in the currency, as a result of which the central bank buys and sells foreign currency .
British finance minister Rishi Sunak told the Bank of England on Monday to look at the case for a new "Britcoin", or central bank-backed digital currency, aimed at tackling some of the challenges posed by cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin ... This could speed up domestic and foreign payments and reduce financial stability risks.
Financial ServicesBiden under pressure from progressives to end ‘rubber stamp’ on bank deals ... examine how a deal affects the financial stability of the banking system, whether it meets community needs and how well the banks abide by federal lending laws to offer credit to low and moderate-income families ... financial stability.
The central bank's dollar purchase at 5 per cent of the GDP exceeding the 2 per cent threshold was cited as the reason ... It is a mandate of the central bank to provide stability in the currency, as a result of which the central bank buys and sells foreign currency .
BritishChancellorRishi Sunak told the Bank of England on Monday to look at the case for a new "Britcoin", or central bank-backed digital currency, aimed at tackling some of the challenges posed by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin ... This could speed up domestic and foreign payments and reduce financial stability risks.
The stunning rally in Treasury yields this year has stabilized for now but look for rates to resume their rise, says Bank of America, which foresees the 10-year Treasury marching up to a nearly two-year high of 2.5% ... fixed income & FX strategy at Bank of America, in the note.
On Sunday’s panel discussion, the deputy governor of the Chinese central bank noted that until the PBoC figures out what kind of regulatory requirements it needs to prevent the speculative nature of such assets from creating any serious financial stability risk, it will keep its current stance on the asset class.