In wine tasting, a wine is considered "clear" when there are no visible particles suspended in the liquid and, especially in the case of white wines, when there is some degree of transparency. A wine with too much suspended matter will appear cloudy and dull, even if its aroma and flavor are unaffected; wines therefore generally undergo some kind of clarification.
Before fermentation, pectin-splitting enzymes and, for white wine, fining agents such as bentonite may be added to the must in order to promote the agglomeration and settling of colloids later. Pectins are structural molecules in the cell walls of fruits which have the important function of 'gumming' plant cells together. The pectin content of grapes increases steadily throughout ripening, reaching levels of about 1 g/l, although it varies by varietal and pre-fermentation handling processes. Large pectin molecules can affect the amount of juice yielded at pressing, ease of filtration and clarification, and extraction of tannins. Grapes contain natural pectolytic enzymes responsible for softening the grape berries during ripening, but these are not active under wine-making conditions (due to pH level, SO2, and alcohol.) Therefore, fungal pectolytic enzymes are often added to white must to break up pectins, decrease the viscosity of the juice, and speed up settling. In red musts, this increases color and tannin extraction.
Observational studies of ecosystems use constancy to describe living systems that can remain unchanged.
Resistance and inertia (persistence)
Resistance and inertia deal with a system's inherent response to some perturbation.
A perturbation is any externally imposed change in conditions, usually happening in a short time period. Resistance is a measure of how little the variable of interest changes in response to external pressures. Inertia (or persistence) implies that the living system is able to resist external fluctuations. In the context of changing ecosystems in post-glacial North America, E.C. Pielou remarked at the outset of her overview,
The objectives of the MoU are to establish an arrangement for the exchange of information concerning the stability and development of their respective banking The MoU is also expected to strengthen areas of compliance with international standards and regulations related to the ...
The ReserveBank of India has maintained its strong views against cryptocurrencies, saying they pose serious threats to macroeconomic and financial stability. The central bank also doubted the reported number of ...
Crews worked to stabilize the Coldwater River bank in Merritt ahead of a weekend storm that led to a significant rise in river levels on Sunday ...City officials in Merritt got good news on Monday morning, after temporary diking and stabilization efforts held a rising Coldwater River at bay overnight.
“The Belgian government’s decision to label products from Judea & Samaria strengthens extremists, does not help promote peace in the region, and shows Belgium as not contributing to regional stability,” Roll said on Twitter, using the biblical names for the WestBank preferred on the Israeli right.
The Hellenic Financial Stability Fund (HFSF) will have to prepare a strategy for the concession of its stakes in the country’s main banks, ahead of the prospect of its full divestment from the systemic lenders by 2025, according to a ...
VTB expects another 50 bps rate rise at the central bank's next meeting on Dec ... "I do not think that this (potential new sanctions) is a serious threat for the country's financial stability or for the bank," he said, adding that any new sanctions would hurt U.S.
The Bank of Ghana has revealed the country’s ... According to the central bank’s 2020 Financial StabilityReview, insurance penetration, in the near-to-medium term, is estimated to increase following the passage of a number of the new InsuranceBill currently before Parliament.
Terming the government's bill as a response to the central bank's concerns about macro-economic stability, the official in the know of discussions on the upcoming legislation said the "government's response is not to ban cryptocurrencies but rather to provide cryptocurrency via the RBI".
Terming the Centre’s bill as a response to the central bank’s concerns about macro-economic stability, the official in the know of discussions on the upcoming legislation said the “government’s response is not to ban cryptocurrencies but rather to provide cryptocurrency via the RBI.”.
... limits on some developers' debt levels and caps on bank loans to the sector ... Developers having a lower debt burden and better ability to repay loans will also mean a lower risk of bad loans for banks and bond defaults for investors, strengthening overall financial stability.
sanctions on Russia's secondary OFZ treasury bond market are not a 'serious threat' for the country's financial stability as state banks are much bigger holders of the bonds than U.S. investors, the head of state bank VTB said ...Register ... ....
Togbe Afede XIV, the Agbogbomefia of the Asogli state has called for the separation of Governorship and Chairmanship at the Bank of Ghana... Bank of Ghana has lost focus, competing with the banks for profits, instead contributing to the macro-economic objectives of stability, growth and employment creation.".
Bailey, who is the governor of the Bank of England, has supported the recent sentiments by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) regarding the same ... The institution further noted that the use of Bitcoin “as a legal tender entails significant risks to consumer protection, financial integrity, and financial stability.”.