In wine tasting, a wine is considered "clear" when there are no visible particles suspended in the liquid and, especially in the case of white wines, when there is some degree of transparency. A wine with too much suspended matter will appear cloudy and dull, even if its aroma and flavor are unaffected; wines therefore generally undergo some kind of clarification.
Before fermentation, pectin-splitting enzymes and, for white wine, fining agents such as bentonite may be added to the must in order to promote the agglomeration and settling of colloids later. Pectins are structural molecules in the cell walls of fruits which have the important function of 'gumming' plant cells together. The pectin content of grapes increases steadily throughout ripening, reaching levels of about 1 g/l, although it varies by varietal and pre-fermentation handling processes. Large pectin molecules can affect the amount of juice yielded at pressing, ease of filtration and clarification, and extraction of tannins. Grapes contain natural pectolytic enzymes responsible for softening the grape berries during ripening, but these are not active under wine-making conditions (due to pH level, SO2, and alcohol.) Therefore, fungal pectolytic enzymes are often added to white must to break up pectins, decrease the viscosity of the juice, and speed up settling. In red musts, this increases color and tannin extraction.
Observational studies of ecosystems use constancy to describe living systems that can remain unchanged.
Resistance and inertia (persistence)
Resistance and inertia deal with a system's inherent response to some perturbation.
A perturbation is any externally imposed change in conditions, usually happening in a short time period. Resistance is a measure of how little the variable of interest changes in response to external pressures. Inertia (or persistence) implies that the living system is able to resist external fluctuations. In the context of changing ecosystems in post-glacial North America, E.C. Pielou remarked at the outset of her overview,
According to the 2022 Financial StabilityReview, the concentration shock assesses the impact of a failure of a bank’s single largest borrower ...The CentralBank explained further that the stability of the banking industry remains critical in preserving financial system stability in the country.
China's central bank is expected to prioritize stabilizing market confidence in the coming quarter, keeping monetary policy accommodative for economic recovery while fending off any rapid weakening of the renminbi against the dollar, experts said on Thursday ...The People's Bank of ...
LONDON — The Bank of England took emergency action Wednesday to stabilize U.K ... financial stability,″ the bank said in a statement ... The Bank of England’s plan to buy government debt helped stabilize the bond market, with 10-year bond yields falling to 4.235% in midday trading in London.
The UK’s central bank was forced to take steps to prevent a ‘material risk to UK financial stability’ after the Government announced un-costed plans to borrow billions of pounds to fund a raft of tax cuts last week ... ‘In line with its financial stability objective, the Bank of ...
To stabilize the falling pound, the Bank of England swung into action on Wednesday announcing the purchase of its long-dated government bonds. On Wednesday, September 28, the British central bank took emergency measures announcing the purchase of long-dated government bonds to stabilize the falling market ... The British central bank ..
LONDON (AP) — The Bank of England took emergency action Wednesday to stabilize U.K ... financial stability,″ the bank said in a statement ... The Bank of England’s plan to buy government debt helped stabilize the bond market, with 10-year bond yields falling to 4.235% in midday trading in London.
LONDON -- The Bank of England took emergency action Wednesday to stabilize U.K ... financial stability,″ the Bank of England said in a statement ... The central bank was able to step in immediately with government bond purchases because its Financial Policy Committee is required to ensure the stability of the financial system.
She spoke after the Bank of England took emergency action Wednesday to stabilize U.K ... The Bank of England warned that crumbling confidence in the economy posed a "material risk to U.K ... The bank's action helped stabilize the British currency and the bond markets ... The bank, which raised its key rate to 2.25% last week, isn't scheduled to meet until Nov.
Britain's central bank on Wednesday warned that dwindling confidence in the economy poses a significant risk as it took the unusual step of intervening directly in financial markets ... What did the bank say? ... "Were dysfunction in this market to continue or worsen, there would be a material risk to UK financial stability," according to the bank.
About SunflowerBank... About Bank On. Bank On coalitions are locally-led partnerships between local public officials; city, state, and federal government agencies; financial institutions; and community organizations that work together to help improve the financial stability of unbanked and underbanked individuals and families in their communities.
She spoke after the Bank of England took emergency action Wednesday to stabilize U.K ... The Bank of England warned that crumbling confidence in the British economy posed a “material risk to U.K ... The bank's action helped stabilize the British currency and the bond markets.
The CentralBank said holds it as essential to maintain the relative stability of the Taiwan dollar exchange rate ... While the Taiwan dollar has depreciated against the greenback, it has been relatively stable against other major currencies, Central Bank officials said.
The central bank’s intervention, in which it bought up long-term gilts, came after it warned of a “material risk to UK financial stability” posed by plunging markets for UK debt ... On Wednesday, the Bank of England was forced to intervene by buying up gilts — UK government debt in ...
The Bank of England, through its Financial Stability Committee created after the 2008 crash, is meant to inoculate consumers and markets against such serious risk ... The Bank’s governor Andrew Bailey and its ‘stability chief’ Jon Cunliffe may yet find themselves in the political ...