In wine tasting, a wine is considered "clear" when there are no visible particles suspended in the liquid and, especially in the case of white wines, when there is some degree of transparency. A wine with too much suspended matter will appear cloudy and dull, even if its aroma and flavor are unaffected; wines therefore generally undergo some kind of clarification.
Before fermentation, pectin-splitting enzymes and, for white wine, fining agents such as bentonite may be added to the must in order to promote the agglomeration and settling of colloids later. Pectins are structural molecules in the cell walls of fruits which have the important function of 'gumming' plant cells together. The pectin content of grapes increases steadily throughout ripening, reaching levels of about 1 g/l, although it varies by varietal and pre-fermentation handling processes. Large pectin molecules can affect the amount of juice yielded at pressing, ease of filtration and clarification, and extraction of tannins. Grapes contain natural pectolytic enzymes responsible for softening the grape berries during ripening, but these are not active under wine-making conditions (due to pH level, SO2, and alcohol.) Therefore, fungal pectolytic enzymes are often added to white must to break up pectins, decrease the viscosity of the juice, and speed up settling. In red musts, this increases color and tannin extraction.
Observational studies of ecosystems use constancy to describe living systems that can remain unchanged.
Resistance and inertia (persistence)
Resistance and inertia deal with a system's inherent response to some perturbation.
A perturbation is any externally imposed change in conditions, usually happening in a short time period. Resistance is a measure of how little the variable of interest changes in response to external pressures. Inertia (or persistence) implies that the living system is able to resist external fluctuations. In the context of changing ecosystems in post-glacial North America, E.C. Pielou remarked at the outset of her overview,
The Bank of Ghana has in the first ... The activities of the central bank on the forex market continue to drive the stability of the cedi this year despite the coronavirus pandemic ... Governor of the Bank of Ghana Dr.
(MENAFN - Jordan Times)BRUSSELS � Central banks aim for price stability, and today, prices are largely stable across much of the developed world ... It defines�''price stability'' not as stable, that is, unchanging, prices, but as year-on-year eurozone inflation of ''below, but close ...
Among the investors burnt in the widespread fallout included clients of Swiss banking giant Credit Suisse, ... "We agree with the Bank of England’s assessment that the Greensill entities were not systemically important for the purposes of UK financial stability," Rathi said.
Bad bank refers to a financial institution that takes over bad assets of lenders and undertakes resolution ... As per the Financial StabilityReport released by the RBI, the NPAs of the banking sector were projected to surge to 13.5 per cent of advances by September 2021, from 7.5 per cent in September 2020, under the baseline scenario.
Long-term inflation expectations constitute an important variable monitored by central banks the world over in their design of monetary policy in pursuit of price stability ... These expectations are considered well-anchored when they converge quickly and consistently with the central bank’s target.
A First Citizens Bank study showed that North Carolina small businesses are feeling more confident about their growth, with confidence rates rebounding back to pre-pandemic levels ... First Citizens Bank said this confidence indicates a return to pre-pandemic levels ... Citizens Bank.
Just like Garba Soumana, thousands of Nigerien producers have the comfort of knowing that they will have the seeds they need for the next planting season, in June and July, thanks to support from the AfricanDevelopmentBank to help Niger with its country-wide response to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, do not have a central bank to implement monetary policy focused on stabilizing purchasing power ... The lack of price stability has prevented credit and debt markets from forming because volatility incurs a premium.
A comprehensive financial policy package—together with measures to support households and corporates helped mitigate financial stability risks ... If the recovery falters, Denmark should deploy its substantial fiscal space and allow its strong automatic stabilizers to operate fully with further discretionary loosening as needed.
HURON — Chairman Dan Klimisch of Yankton announces that the James RiverWaterDevelopmentDistrict Board of Directors will be holding their regular meeting on Thursday, May 13, 2021, by way of video conference (Zoom) at 9 a.m ... • Funding request for a cost share program for bank stabilization along the James River ... ....
In the WestBank territory, ... He said the PA was insisting that it has a functional role as a guarantor for stabilizing the situation on the ground in the West Bank and to maintain a relationship with the occupation authorities within the framework of agreed communication channels.
... clean-up, the banks of Whitewood Creek are slowly being stabilized and the waterway, itself, is starting to shine again ... With pipes sticking out of the hillside, a focus was placed on bank stabilization and erosion control, as well as planting, and direct plan and refuse removal.