In wine tasting, a wine is considered "clear" when there are no visible particles suspended in the liquid and, especially in the case of white wines, when there is some degree of transparency. A wine with too much suspended matter will appear cloudy and dull, even if its aroma and flavor are unaffected; wines therefore generally undergo some kind of clarification.
Before fermentation, pectin-splitting enzymes and, for white wine, fining agents such as bentonite may be added to the must in order to promote the agglomeration and settling of colloids later. Pectins are structural molecules in the cell walls of fruits which have the important function of 'gumming' plant cells together. The pectin content of grapes increases steadily throughout ripening, reaching levels of about 1 g/l, although it varies by varietal and pre-fermentation handling processes. Large pectin molecules can affect the amount of juice yielded at pressing, ease of filtration and clarification, and extraction of tannins. Grapes contain natural pectolytic enzymes responsible for softening the grape berries during ripening, but these are not active under wine-making conditions (due to pH level, SO2, and alcohol.) Therefore, fungal pectolytic enzymes are often added to white must to break up pectins, decrease the viscosity of the juice, and speed up settling. In red musts, this increases color and tannin extraction.
Observational studies of ecosystems use constancy to describe living systems that can remain unchanged.
Resistance and inertia (persistence)
Resistance and inertia deal with a system's inherent response to some perturbation.
A perturbation is any externally imposed change in conditions, usually happening in a short time period. Resistance is a measure of how little the variable of interest changes in response to external pressures. Inertia (or persistence) implies that the living system is able to resist external fluctuations. In the context of changing ecosystems in post-glacial North America, E.C. Pielou remarked at the outset of her overview,
Proceeds of channelled SDRs, President Akufo-Addo reiterated, should fund vaccine acquisition and manufacturing, climate and green investments, and a pan-African Stability Mechanism like the European Stability Mechanism, that would safeguard financial stability on the Continent.
The latest numbers from the AfricanDevelopmentBank indicate that African economies, which contracted by 2.1% in 2020, are yet to return to pre-pandemic levels ... In much the same way, a World Bank or IMF or WHO, that is born today, would be radically different institutions from ...
The developer’s onshore property unit said it reached an agreement with yuan bondholders on an interest payment, offering some relief after fears over Evergrande’s financial stability sparked a global flight from risk. China’s central bank also boosted short-term cash into the financial system, helping steady commodity markets.
This was considered a testimony to Egypt’s fruitful efforts in developing the domestic infrastructure, while achieving political and economic stability, which has always been recognized by the Bank’s Board of Directors in its meetings, Zayed said, calling on Egypt to convey its valuable experience to other African countries.
What is CentralBankDigitalCurrency (CBDC) ... The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) recommends 14 characteristics for CBDC with the overriding feature being that it aligns with the financial stability goal of a central bank as a country's critical monetary institution. Many central banks are still working through how to issue CBDC.
The Financial Services Agency issued business improvement orders to MizuhoBank and its parent company, Mizuho Financial Group Inc., on Sept ... It concluded that emergency measures are needed to ensure the stability of the bank's computer systems, as it will take more time for the regulator to fully understand what had occurred behind the scenes.
China's central bank has reiterated that it will prioritize stability in its monetary policy and avoid making sudden shifts in 2021. Based on bank quotes calculated by adding ... The quoting banks submit their figures before 9 a.m.
Our family has installed hundreds of log and rock structures along the Tarryall Creek while planting willow saplings to stabilize the riverbank and provide shade cover for fish. Our cattle interact with the creek during the winter to help with stabilizing the banks and keeping our creek fish friendly ... .
At the end of its two-day monthly meeting Wednesday, the central bank’s monetary policy committee maintained its ultra-flexible policy ...Despite the positive tone, the central bank stressed the importance of monitoring the evolution of Covid-19 due to its unpredictability, to maintain the financial system’s stability.